The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a three-country agreement negotiated by the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States, which came into force in January 1994. NAFTA eliminated most tariffs on goods traded between the three countries, with a focus on trade liberalization in agriculture, textiles and automobiles. The agreement also aimed to protect intellectual property, establish dispute resolution mechanisms and implement labour and environmental protection measures through ancillary agreements. For the first time, the agreement is specifically aimed at agricultural biotechnology to support 21st century innovations in agriculture. The text covers all biotechnology, including new technologies such as gene processing, while the trans-Pacific Partnership text covered only traditional rDNA technology. In particular, the United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on provisions to improve information exchange and cooperation on trade-related issues in agricultural biotechnology. Canada and the United States have also agreed on strict rules to ensure fair and transparent management of tariff quotas to ensure that distributors can use them fully. The United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on several measures to reduce the use of trade-distorting policies, including: Mexican manufacturing accounts for 17% of GDP.  However, Mexican President Andrés Manuel Lupepez Obrador believes that this trade agreement will be a clear positive for the Mexican economy through increased foreign investment, job creation and the expansion of trade.  U.S. dairy farmers will have new export opportunities to sell dairy products in Canada.
Canada will provide new access to U.S. products, including liquid milk, cream, butter, skimmed milk powder, cheese and other dairy products. It will also eliminate its tariffs on whey and margarine. For poultry, Canada will provide new access to chickens and eggs in the United States and increase access for turkeys. Under a modernized agreement, all other tariffs on agricultural products traded between the United States and Mexico remain zero. The United States, Mexico and Canada updated NAFTA to create the new USMCA. The USMCA is mutually beneficial to workers, farmers, farmers and businesses in North America. The new agreement, which came into effect on July 1, 2020, will create a more balanced trading environment, support high-paying jobs for Americans and allow the North American economy to grow. Much of the debate among political experts has focused on how to mitigate the negative effects of agreements such as NAFTA, including whether workers who lose their jobs are compensated or whether they are offering retraining programs to help them move into new sectors.